Physical Science B SGI Lesson #17 (3-18-2019)

Topic:

Introduction to Electricity

9

Objectives:

• Relate the flow of electrons to current.
• Correlate the flow of water with the flow of electricity in a system.
• Explain that static electricity is the buildup of a charge (either net positive or net negative) over a surface.
• Compare and contrast two forms of electricity—current and static.
• Name a few engineering careers that involve electricity.

IMPORTANT REMINDERS:

Event #1 (THIS WEDNESDAY)

3-20-2019: Engineering Design Challenge at 9AM.

For those of you who did Physical Science A with me in Fall 2018, remember the lunar drop we did with the egg? Well, this design challenge will be very similar. Both Biology and Physical Science Students will be working together in the large classroom here at the Wilson Center starting at 9AM on this challenge.

Vocabulary/Definitions:

atom: The basic unit of all elements of matter.

conductor: A substance that allows the easy movement of electricity.

current: Something that flows, such as a stream of water, air or electrons, in a definite direction.

electricity: The presence or movement of electric charges. Electric charge occurs when a net difference in charged particles (such as proton or electrons) exists.

electron: A particle in an atom that has a negative charge, and acts as the primary carrier of electricity.

insulator: A substance that does not allow the easy movement of electricity.

proton: A particle located in the nucleus of an atom that has a positive electrical charge.

static electricity: A stationary electric charge buildup on an insulating material.

Warm Up: (5 minutes)

Top 5!

On the index card provided, list the top 5 uses of electricity!

Example: Space Heating (The heater in your house could be electric instead of gas.)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Task #1  – Intro Questions (5 minutes)

Verbally answer the following questions with a partner:

1. What is static electricity?
2. How can you prove it exists in this room currently? Mini Experiment! (Hint: Balloons?)

Task #2 – Recall (5 minutes)

What is the diagram below depicting?

Correctly place the following terms in the diagram:

1. Nucleus
2. Protons (+)
3. Neutrons (No Charge)
4. Electrons (-)

Task #3 – Key Information to Remember ( Cornell Notes – 20 minutes)

Directions:

Utilize the Cornell Note sheet that I provide you today to take down information in this section.

Presentation -> Presentation – Introduction to Electricity

• Opposite charges have an attractive force! (Play with magnets!)

• Like forces repel! (Play with magnets!)

• The universe strives for stability!
• Atoms are typically neutral.

• Did you know?

• Atoms become charged by gaining or losing electrons.
• 3 Big Rules of Electrostatics
1. Opposites attract
2. Likes repel
3. Only electrons can move (protons move, but don’t leave the nucleus. Why? Because they are held in place by the strongest forces in the universe!)

• Question: What is the bottom part of a plug called? What is its function?

Answer: “The bottom prong of  a plug called the ground. It discharges any excess  charge that may develop in an electrical device”

• What IS a charged atom? It is an atom that has more electrons than protons.
• Look at the atom below? Is it charged or not? Explain your answer.

• Electrons flow toward positively charged objects. This is called current and is measured in Amps.
• DC or “Direct Current” only moves in one direction, like what is depicted below.

• Force of attraction = voltage
• In materials called insulators (plastic or glass for example) the electrons remain stuck in a cloud around each atom’s nucleus.

• But in a conductor (like the metal in wires) the electrons are able to move from atom to atom.

Task #4 – Questions (5 Minutes)

1. How is static electricity different from an electric current?

VS

1. Why is there spark?

Task #5 – Electricity Unit Student Work

I will be giving each of you a copy of this PDF file for you to do on your own or with a partner.

Task #6 – Electrical Careers Research Project

I will be giving each of you a copy of this PDF file for you to do on your own or with a partner.

Next Generation Science Standards:

HS-PS2-5. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current.

HS-PS3-1 Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known.

HS-PS3-5. Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction.

Lesson Plan Resources:

Website – Next Generation Science Standards

Website – Electricity Lesson Plan Inspiration

Website – BookletOnElectricty